Halloween safety tips for pet owners

Special to Leader-Press 

The Texas Department of State Health Services, Zoonosis Control Program would like to provide some Halloween health tips to avoid unfortunate mishaps and tragedies.
With the excitement of strangers ringing doorbells in hopes of receiving a treat, pets can become nervous and might escape from the safety of their home. Loud or unfamiliar noises created by pranksters or party-goers can also be unsettling for pets and may encourage them to try to escape. Be sure that your pet is wearing a collar with an identification tag on it for easy tracing. Another good tracking device is an identification microchip; check with your veterinarian or local animal shelter on how to get this procedure done on your pet. In an effort to prevent an escape, keep animals confined in a part of the house separate from Halloween party or trick-or-treat activities.
With busier street and sidewalk holiday traffic, an extra precaution if you walk your dog at night is to add reflective collars and tags or a leash with flashing lights to increase the visibility of you and your pet. It’s also not advisable to take pets along for trick-or-treating, as scared pets might run away or even bite. If you opt to take your pet, the animal should be trained and kept on a leash under the control of an adult.
Being in the midst of the hustle and bustle of holiday activities could provoke even well-tempered animals to bite. Keep your pets out of situations that could be stress evoking for them. Animals do not understand costumes! Halloween is a good time to keep your outdoor dogs confined safely and comfortably in the back yard to prevent any mishaps or accidents when costumed strangers approach for tricks or treats. As with any time of the year, make sure that your pet is up to date on its rabies vaccination. By law, dogs and cats in Texas are required to be vaccinated against rabies by a veterinarian. Rabies vaccination is also recommended for any animals that are in close contact with people, such as ferrets and wolf-dog hybrids, as well as horses and other livestock.
Ingestion of chocolate can produce toxicity in animals. Dogs in particular are attracted to the sweet treats. The extent of toxicity an animal exhibits after consuming chocolate is based on a variety of factors, such as the type of chocolate ingested, the size of the animal, or an animal’s individual sensitivity to chocolate. Baker’s or baking chocolate is the form of chocolate that contains a higher concentration of stimulant (theobromine) than either semi-sweet or regular milk chocolate. Some typical clinical signs of chocolate toxicity include excessive excitability, restlessness, increased heart rate, muscle tremors and seizures, vomiting, and diarrhea. The last two clinical signs may be transiently present due to an animal consuming any amount of chocolate (i.e., any ingestion of chocolate may cause gastrointestinal upset, but not extensive toxicity). Severe reactions may result in coma. A veterinarian should be consulted immediately to discuss the appropriate action to be taken if an animal has consumed chocolate. There is no specific antidote for chocolate toxicity. Animals can be treated by a veterinarian to address any clinical signs they are exhibiting.
Another dangerous substance associated with sweet treats is xylitol. Xylitol is an artificial sweetener found in sugar-free products, such as gum, candy, and baked goods. In dogs, even a small dose of xylitol can cause toxic effects; it can also be fatal. If a dog consumes xylitol, it can cause hypoglycemia (sudden decrease in blood glucose) and/or liver failure. If you suspect that your dog has eaten a sugar-free product with xylitol, you should take it to a veterinarian immediately, as signs of toxicity can start within 30 minutes of ingestion (signs could also be delayed for a few days). Some of the clinical signs of xylitol toxicity in dogs include weakness, lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle tremors, seizures, anemia, increased thirst, increased urination, and bloody or tarry feces. There have been some indications that ferrets may react to xylitol in the same way that dogs do.
Glow jewelry contains a chemical called dibutyl phthalate. Although this chemical may have the potential to cause death via respiratory paralysis, cats generally will only ingest a minimal amount due to its unpleasant taste and the fact that only a small amount of the chemical is present in the jewelry. Cats that have bitten into the jewelry may exhibit heavy salivation, hyperactivity, and aggressive behavior, but they typically recover within minutes. Immediately after a cat happens to ingest this chemical, it helps to feed it small quantities of milk, canned food, or tuna juice to dilute the chemical in its mouth. Wash off any drops of the chemical that might be on the cat’s coat and flush the cat’s eyes with water if there has been ocular exposure. There is no known antidote for dibutyl phthalate; cats that have ingested large quantities should be closely monitored by a veterinarian.
If you know or suspect that an animal has ingested anything that could possibly produce toxicity, immediately consult a veterinarian, animal emergency clinic, or poison control center. The Texas Poison Center Network can be reached at 1-800-222-1222. The ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center can be reached at 1-800-548-2423.

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